The Credit Illusion
Over the past few years, I've built a successful business. I've worked hard, and I'm proud of what I've done. But now President Obama tells me that social and political forces helped build that. Mitt Romney went to Israel and said cultural forces explain the differences in the wealth of nations. I'm confused. How much of my success is me, and how much of my success comes from forces outside of me?
Confused in Columbus.
This is an excellent question. It has no definitive answer. There were many different chefs of the stew that is you: parents, friends, teachers, ancestors, mentors and, of course, Oprah Winfrey. It's very hard to know how much of your success is owed to those people and how much is owed to yourself. As a wise man once said, what God hath woven together, even multiple regression analysis cannot tear asunder.
Nonetheless, this question does have a practical and a moral answer. It is this: You should regard yourself as the sole author of all your future achievements and as the grateful beneficiary of all your past successes.
As you go through life, you should pass through different phases in thinking about how much credit you deserve. You should start your life with the illusion that you are completely in control of what you do. You should finish life with the recognition that, all in all, you got better than you deserved.
In your 20s, for example, you should regard yourself as an Ayn Randian Superman who is the architect of the wonder that is you. This is the last time in your life that you will find yourself truly fascinating, so you might as well take advantage of it. You should imagine that you have the power to totally transform yourself, to go from the pathetic characters on "Girls" to the awesome and confident persona of someone like Jay-Z.
This sense of possibility will unleash feverish energies that will propel you forward. You'll be one of those people who joined every club in high school, started a side business while in college and spent the years after graduation bravely doing entrepreneurial social work across the developing world.
This may not make you sympathetic when it comes to other people's failures (as everybody's Twitter feed can attest), but it will give you liftoff velocity in the race of life.
In your 30s and 40s, you will begin to think like a political scientist. You'll have a lower estimation of your own power and a greater estimation of the power of the institutions you happen to be in.
You'll still have faith in your own skills, but it will be more the skills of navigation, not creation. You'll adapt to the rules and peculiarities of your environment. You'll keep up with what the essayist Joseph Epstein calls "the current snobberies." You'll understand that the crucial question isn't what you want, but what the market wants. For a brief period, you won't mind breakfast meetings.
Then in your 50s and 60s, you will become a sociologist, understanding that relationships are more powerful than individuals. The higher up a person gets, the more time that person devotes to scheduling and personnel. As a manager, you will find yourself in the coaching phase of life, enjoying the dreams of your underlings. Ambition, like promiscuity, is most pleasant when experienced vicariously.
You'll find yourself thinking back to your own mentors, newly aware of how much they shaped your path. Even though the emotions of middle-aged people are kind of ridiculous, you'll get sentimental about the relationships you benefited from and the ones you are building. Steve Jobs said his greatest accomplishment was building a company, not a product.
Then in your 70s and 80s, you'll be like an ancient historian. Your mind will bob over the decades and then back over the centuries, and you'll realize how deeply you were formed by the ancient traditions of your people — being Mormon or Jewish or black or Hispanic. You'll appreciate how much power the dead have over the living, since this will one day be your only power. You'll be struck by the astonishing importance of luck — the fact that you took this bus and not another, met this person and not another.
In short, as maturity develops and the perspectives widen, the smaller the power of the individual appears, and the greater the power of those forces flowing through the individual.
But you, Mr. Confused in Columbus, are right to preserve your pride in your accomplishments. Great companies, charities and nations were built by groups of individuals who each vastly overestimated their own autonomy. As an ambitious executive, it's important that you believe that you will deserve credit for everything you achieve. As a human being, it's important for you to know that's nonsense.